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能源效率不够,导致住房“净零”

Demand for residences that produce as much energy as they consume is being spurred by climate concerns, 消费者的需求和更便宜的太阳能技术.

Jan和Julie Sehrt在卡茨基尔项目的模型屋里 “net zero” development in Livingston Manor, N.Y.
Credit...Arden Wray为《十博体育网》报道

In the three years that Nicole Rae and Brian Mastenbrook lived in the San Francisco Bay Area, 他们越来越担心加州的野火. The skies would turn orange, ash would settle on plants and porch railings, and Ms. Rae是一名30岁的教师,患有哮喘,会有呼吸困难.

So in May, she and Mr. Mastenbrook, a 37-year-old tech worker, sold their home and moved to Ann Arbor, Mich. Mr. 马斯滕布鲁克的家人在密歇根州,安娜堡的官员也在 采取措施降低城市的碳足迹.

他们赞赏在那里建立“净零”社区的计划, Veridian at County Farm, 用太阳能供电, all-electric homes that would be free of the fossil fuels whose greenhouse gas emissions have contributed to climate change.

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Credit...《十博体育网》的西尔维亚·贾鲁斯报道

“如果这些房子建好了,今天就可以买了,”Ms. 瑞伊说:“十博体育网早就买了.”

这对夫妇作为气候难民的经历可能是戏剧性的, but across the country, 越来越多的购房者正在寻求净零住宅, 之所以这么叫是因为它们产生的能量和它们消耗的一样多, 因为它们通常是通过太阳能来实现的, 不向大气中增加碳. 开发商也越来越多地来满足需求.

有关净零住房的数据很少, 但非营利组织Team Zero的一份报告记录了大约24个,美国有500个家庭实现了这个目标 “零能耗”的性能 并估计实际数字“要大得多”."能源部已将8656人认证为"net zero ready,这意味着他们可以在太阳能的帮助下达到零能量.

预计这一数字还会增长, 这不仅是因为消费者的需求,还因为构建代码更新, 更实惠的太阳能技术, a growing familiarity with once-exotic appliances like induction stoves and the “把一切”运动. 现在,投资者越来越多地将资金投向 可持续的房地产, making it easier for developers to raise money for housing that addresses climate concerns.

And although the net zero movement is sometimes associated with homes for the affluent, it is also resulting in housing for those at the other end of the income spectrum, 谁将从更低的能源账单中受益.

他说:“房地产业正像汽车业一样被打乱,” said Aaron Smith, 非营利机构能源公司的首席执行官 & 环境建筑联盟, referring to the popularity of electric cars and pledges by manufacturers to 逐步淘汰汽油动力汽车.

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Credit...Union Studio /效果图由McLennan Design设计

But even as the climate crisis has highlighted the need for sustainable construction, challenges remain. 建筑业 resisted code changes. The surge in demand for single-family homes spurred by the pandemic may weaken the urgency for change because conventional houses are finding ready buyers these days.

Many consumers are still more interested in granite kitchen counters and other cosmetic details than in electric heat pumps, but surveys indicate that millennials are likely to bring their concerns about the environment to their home-buying decisions, said Sara Gutterman, 绿色建设者传媒的首席执行官, which has conducted 对这一人口群体的调查.

Jan Sehrt, 37, and his wife, Julie, 39, 他们都是在布鲁克林有一套三居室公寓的工人, spent the better part of the pandemic searching for a second home where they could enjoy nature with their two daughters.

经过1个以上的冲刷,000 listings online, 塞特夫妇选择了太阳能供电的房子, all-electric house in the Catskill Project, a net zero development in the upstate New York hamlet of Livingston Manor. Their home — which will cost about $1 million and is expected to be completed next fall — will be one of 11 single-family residences designed to maximize solar power and prevent energy loss through airtight building envelopes.

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Credit...Arden Wray为《十博体育网》报道
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Credit...Arden Wray为《十博体育网》报道

“We stepped into the model home, and they said, ‘These are triple-pane windows,’” said Mr. Sehrt从小在德国就对绿色建筑很熟悉. “之后就是一场接一场的胜利.”

人们普遍认为住宅建筑对于 将全球气温上升限制在1.5 degrees Celsius 在工业化前的水平. Buildings, 包括其结构, 约占碳排放的40%, 其中住房占了一半. 改造效率低下的结构是最大的挑战, 但是建造可持续的房屋也很重要.

For decades, homeowners experimented with solar panels and off-the-grid houses. Then 开拓性的发展开始出现. Grow Community, on Washington State’s Bainbridge Island, introduced its first solar-powered homes in 2012; its 第三,也是最后一个发展阶段 就要开始了吗.

Marja Williams, a development consultant who helped guide Grow in its early years and has lived there since 2014, 她说她每月的水电费只有7美元.97 -基本服务费. 她的房子产生的能量比它使用的要多, with the utility funneling off excess power in summer and crediting her account in winter when the solar arrays are less productive. A Grow home that originally cost about $480,000 sold recently for nearly double that, she said.

Builders such as Mandalay Homes and Thrive Home Builders 专门研究家用超高效能源利用. 其他国家正在试验净零建设.

Crown Pointe Estates recently introduced what may be the most upscale version: the “zero series” homes at the company’s MariSol Malibu development in Ventura County, Calif. The first residence, more than 14,000 square feet, is on the market for $32 million.

布鲁克菲尔德资产管理公司和达克拉已经和特斯拉联手 布鲁克菲尔德伊斯顿公园在建的11栋住宅 in Austin, Texas. The homes will look identical to the other single-family houses in the development except for their solar roof tiles.

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Credit...Brookfield Residential

Ranging from $384,000 to $681,000, they cost about 10 percent more than neighboring homes but are expected to generate and store all the energy residents need, 将他们从能源账单和脆弱性中解放出来 blackouts.

About 1,400人对这11套房子表示了兴趣, said Brian Kingston, 布鲁克菲尔德房地产集团的首席执行官, 谁把它解释为“概念的证明?.开发团队计划再建造200个这样的机器人.

Low-rise, single-family homes are not the only kind of net zero housing in the works: Multifamily housing contains the majority of net zero units in the United States. 可持续生活的创新, a Seattle tech company, is building a 15-story, 112-unit apartment tower with factory-made panels preloaded with plumbing, 电气线路和机械系统.

A prefabricated approach is being used on a much smaller scale elsewhere in Seattle: The Block Project 为无家可归者建造微型太阳能房屋.

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Credit...Bernard Troyer

The effort, 由非营利组织“面对无家可归者”发起, crafts panels in a workshop and then assembles them in the yards of homeowners who have agreed to turn over part of their property to a 230-square-foot residence for someone in need. So far, 11 of these homes, which cost about $75,000 to build, are occupied, 更多的计划正在进行中, said Bernard Troyer, 面对无家可归者的项目经理.

Veridian, the Ann Arbor project, aims for a mix of income levels on its 14-acre site. Avalon Housing, 一家提供经济适用房的非营利机构, will construct nine buildings containing 50 apartments on a portion of the site.

110套市价住房, to be developed by Thrive Collaborative (which is unrelated to Thrive Home Builders), will range from $200,000 apartments to $900,000年独栋房屋. 该网站的工作预计将于今年秋天开始, 市场价住房应该在2023年完工, said Matthew Grocoff, Thrive’s founder.

除了从使命驱动的基金中获得融资外,奥巴马还表示. Grocoff吸引了当地投资者,其中包括Mitch Hall和Lori Hall. 有三个成年子女的退休人员, the Halls have decided not only to buy a townhouse at Veridian but to become the largest equity partner in the project.

“这是十博体育网作为一个星球和一个国家所需要的方式。. Hall said. “希望30年后,这不会那么不寻常.”